The Prophet Mohammed had brought a new faith for the people of Mecca in 610 when he founded Islam. Islam and unified development until the year 632 after BC. Meanwhile, the Prophet Mohammed died without designating his successor, making the Muslims debated each other vehemently. Who will become the successor to the Prophet Mohammed? An individual has sufficient qualities and talents or a relative with the Prophet Mohammed?
Many disciples in Mecca has nominated Mr. Abu Bakr, a companion of the Prophet Mohammed. This nomination was intense opposition from the supporters of Mr. Ali ibn Abi Talib, cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Mohammed.
Controversy over succession led the disciples of Islam split into two factions: one side is the Shiite Muslims supporters Ali (Ali shi’atu), believe that Ali and his descendants is the divine lineage; a party is the Sunni Muslim group is opposed to those who have a relative with the Prophet Mohammed became the Supreme Leader of Muslims. Sunni Muslims consider him to Abu Bakr as the Caliph (of Muslim countries) first.
After a few modifications, he heir Ali also became the fourth Caliph in 656. However, for the Muslim Shiite line, he followed Ali always legitimate as the first of the Prophet Mohammed.
In 661, Mr. Ali was assassinated. After his death, Mu’awiya-a Syrian-dominated leadership has proclaimed himself Caliph, Umayyad dynasty established. Meanwhile, the Shiite stream again determined to reclaim the leadership of the Islamic world must belong to the lineage of the Prophet Mohammed. At that point, the brightest is Mr. Hussein Kamel, his son Ali and Fatima Zahra, the daughter of the Prophet Mohammed. Hussein Kamel, he then became the leader of the revolt against the Umayyad dynasty in Kufa (Iraq).
In 680, soldiers of the forces of Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty was the second killing Hussein Kamel and his many people loyal to him in Karbala, North of Kufa. The Shiite Karbala battle and before shock the tragic death of Mr. Hussein Kamel-people have been brutally murdered: and don’t be buried in 40 days.
Sunnis fear his successor Hussein Kamel will take advantage of the anger of Shiite people, drawing their strength to overthrow the Umayyad dynasty. Anxieties of Sunnis are thought to cause they shunned and persecuted the Shiite stream in a long period of time.
To commemorate the passing of Mr. Hussein Kamel, the Shiite Ashura ceremony held every year with customs using roi to cause people on their shrewd business tactics for yourself. The feast of Ashura Shiite men were Sunnis considered monstrous thing and as their hatred of the Shiite people.
The Umayyad dynasty ruled until the year 750 Muslims and later stages of the Abbasids dynasty at Baghdad (from 750 to 1517). For both, the Shiite dynasty always shows the attitude is not supported. Even during the Sunnis hold the position of Caliph, the Shiite who continued to seek their own Imam, the heirs have the blood of Hussein Kamel, Ali and he to become legitimate leaders of politics and religion. According to Shiite people, 12 Imam and the twelfth Imam Mohammed al-Mahdi disappeared in 939 will be back in one day to reclaim the fair to them, who had always been low before the Sunnis.
Sunnis have dominated the nine centuries until the Safavid dynasty in Persia in 1501. The Safavid dynasty that existed from the year 1501 to 1722, considered the Shiite stream of Islam is the main religion. However, when the Safavid dynasty entered a period of low, powerful Ottoman Empire in Turkey began to overtake and holding power, from which the Sunnis continue to routinely assume the position of Caliph.
Experiencing more conflict, but appeased the split between Sunni and Shiite people is the most important factor in the volatility in the Middle East in the 20th century.
At present, the world has 1.6 billion Muslims, 85% are Sunni and the remainder Shiite who. The Shiite majority in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain and Azerbaijan. Countries with relatively large Shiite community is Afghanistan, India, Kuwait, Lebanon, Pakistan, Qatar, Syria, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and The United Arab Emirates (UAE). While the Sunni majority in war over 40 countries from Morocco to Indonesia.